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Peter Thomas Bauer

Professor Mazrui regards income differences as a reflection of unjust privileges and exploitation. Poor individuals, groups, and societies are underprivileged and deprived. Like others who write in this vein he fails to ask how external forces, especially Western contacts, could possibly have caused the poverty of the poorest, most backward groups in Africa (pygmies, aborigines, desert people) when these have few outside contacts and no commercial contacts with the West. Throughout Africa, as elsewhere in the Third World, the level of economic achievement declines with the distance from the impact of Western commercial contact.

— Peter Bauer, From Subsistence to Exchange [2000]