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Iraq, Iran, and September 11: A Chronology


1951 — Iranian people democratically elect Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh as Iranian premier.

1953 — U.S. government, operating through the CIA, ousts Mossadegh in favor of shah of Iran, Reza Pahlavi, a cruel and tyrannical dictator who, with U.S. government support, brutalizes his own people for the next 25 years. See:

The C.I.A. in Iran by James Risen

The CIA’s Greatest Hits by Mark Zapezauer

1979 — Iranian people revolt and oust the shah of Iran from power and take U.S. officials hostage in anger and retaliation against the United States. U.S. government is outraged over the ouster of the shah and the hostage-taking.

1981 — Iranian people release hostages to the United States.

1980s — U.S. government enters into partnership with Saddam Hussein, dictator of Iraq, to retaliate against Iran. U.S. government furnishes chemical and biological weapons to Saddam. See:

Iraq Got Germs for Weapons Program from U.S. in ’80s by Matt Kelley

Following Iraq’s Bioweapons Trail by Robert Novak

A Tortured Relationship by Chris Bury

Late 1980s — With U.S. government’s support and assistance, Saddam uses U.S.-government-supplied chemical weapons against Iranian troops. See:

Officers Say U.S. Aided Iraq in War despite Use of Gas by Patrick E. Tyler

Rumsfeld Key Player in Iraq Policy Shift by Robert Windrem

1986 — U.S. government enters into partnership with Osama bin Laden and other Islamic radicals to resist Soviet intervention in Afghanistan. U.S. government furnishes partners with weaponry, including U.S.-made Stinger missiles.

1991 — Soviet Union falls and Cold War ends. NATO faces abolition and U.S. military-industrial complex faces massive reduction in budget and influence.

1991 — Saddam contends that neighbor Kuwait is stealing Iraqi oil through slant drilling and is also violating contractual agreements in OPEC. Saddam signals partner U.S. government of intention to invade Kuwait to resolve dispute. U.S. government, through U.S. Ambassador April Glaspie, expresses no objections, stating, “We have no opinion on your Arab-Arab conflicts, such as your dispute with Kuwait … . Kuwait is not associated with America.” See:

Whatever Happened to U.S. Ambassador April Glaspie? by Carleton Cole

1991 — Saddam invades Kuwait to resolve slant-drilling and OPEC dispute. President George H.W. Bush turns on partner Saddam and declares him to be a new “Hitler,” effectively dissolving the long partnership between U.S. government and Saddam. Bush declares intention to attack Iraq with UN assistance to repel Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.

1991 — Persian Gulf War. UN forces, led by U.S. government, defeat Iraq and oust Iraq from Kuwait. UN and President George H.W. Bush leave Saddam in power but require him to dismantle his nuclear facilities and chemical and biological weapons.

1991 — U.S. government attempts to oust Saddam from power through UN-enforced military-economic blockade, also known as “sanctions,” against the Iraqi people, which continues to the present. According to UN officials, sanctions contribute to the deaths of multitudes of Iraqi children, with estimates ranging from hundreds of thousands to a million. See:

Iraq: Paying the Price by John Pilger

Iraq’s Children Suffer as War Looms by Caroline Hawley

The Silent War by Leah C. Wells

Iraq’s Shortage of Medicine May Grow More Severe by Peter Baker

Early 1990s — U.S. government establishes illegal no-fly zones over Iraq, resulting in a continuous U.S. bombing campaign against Iraq to the present. Illegal bombing campaign kills hundreds of Iraqi people. See:

Inside Iraq by John Pilger

Attacks on Iraq Violate Law by Robert Jensen

1993 — U.S. World Trade Center terrorist bomber cites death of Iraqi children as a motivating factor in bombing attack. See:

Religion Isn’t Sole Motive of Terror by John V. Parachini

1996 — Osama bin Laden turns against former partner U.S. government and declares war against United States, stating in part, “More than 600,000 Iraqi children have died due to lack of food and medicine and as a result of the unjustifiable aggression imposed on Iraq and its nation.” See:

Bin Laden’s Fatwa (PBS)

1996 — U.S. government, through U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Madeleine Albright, announces that the deaths of half-a-million Iraqi children resulting from the military-economic blockade against Iraq have been “worth it.” See:

Iraq Adds Its Weight to a Sad Day of Remembrance by Robert Jensen

1998-2000 — High UN officials resign posts in protest against deaths of Iraqi children from sanctions. See:

Squeezed to Death by John Pilger

2001 — September 11 terrorist attacks on World Trade Center and Pentagon. U.S. government declares perpetual “war on terrorism” and begins indefinite campaign to restrict rights and freedoms of the American people. NATO is reinvigorated, military spending soars, and military-industrial complex expands, all for the indefinite future.

2002 — President George W. Bush repeats President George H.W. Bush’s 1991 declaration that former U.S. government partner Saddam is a “Hitler” and that therefore he must be ousted from power, 12 years after the Persian Gulf War. Bush claims that former partner Saddam hates America for its “freedom and values.” Bush cites former partner Saddam’s acquisition of nuclear components and biological and chemical weapons (including those obtained from the United States) as proof that Saddam presents a dire threat to the United States.

2002 — UN Security Council, prodded by U.S. government, requires Saddam to file updated weapons report fully accounting for nuclear components and biological and chemical weaponry.

2002 — Saddam files updated nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons report with the UN Security Council. U.S. government objects to public release of identities of suppliers of nuclear components to Iraq. UN turns report over to United States, which releases censored summary that deletes identities of nuclear suppliers, but information on suppliers nevertheless leaked to press. United States among suppliers of nuclear components to former partner Saddam. See:

Iraq Used Many Suppliers for Nuke Program by Dafna Linzer

2002 — Bush administration announces that former partner Saddam is in breach of UN resolutions by providing an incomplete accounting of nuclear components and biological and chemical weaponry, possibly on the basis of a comparison between the nuclear, biological, and chemical weaponry that the U.S. government originally furnished Saddam and what he has accounted for.

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    Jacob G. Hornberger is founder and president of The Future of Freedom Foundation. He was born and raised in Laredo, Texas, and received his B.A. in economics from Virginia Military Institute and his law degree from the University of Texas. He was a trial attorney for twelve years in Texas. He also was an adjunct professor at the University of Dallas, where he taught law and economics. In 1987, Mr. Hornberger left the practice of law to become director of programs at the Foundation for Economic Education. He has advanced freedom and free markets on talk-radio stations all across the country as well as on Fox News’ Neil Cavuto and Greta van Susteren shows and he appeared as a regular commentator on Judge Andrew Napolitano’s show Freedom Watch. View these interviews at LewRockwell.com and from Full Context. Send him email.